What Causes Insomnia? Understanding the Effects, Diagnosis, & Treatment

Insomnia is a common sleep disorder that affects millions of people worldwide. It is characterized by difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep, leading to poor quality sleep and daytime drowsiness. Effects of insomnia can be acute or chronic and can have a significant impact on a person's overall health and well-being. In this article, we will explore what causes insomnia, its effects, its diagnosis, and the methods of insomnia treatment.

What Causes Insomnia?

Now that we know the meaning of insomnia, let’s look into what causes insomnia. Insomnia can be caused by a wide range of factors, including medical conditions, lifestyle choices, and psychological factors. Some of the most common causes of insomnia in females and males include:

Medical conditions that can cause insomnia:

  • Sleep apnea: This condition is characterized by pauses in breathing during sleep, which can lead to fragmented sleep and daytime fatigue.
  • Restless leg syndrome: People with this condition experience an uncomfortable sensation in their legs that can make it difficult to fall asleep or stay asleep.
  • Chronic pain: Painful conditions such as arthritis, fibromyalgia, or back pain can interfere with sleep and lead to the effects of insomnia.
  • Asthma and other respiratory problems: Breathing difficulties can make it hard to fall asleep or stay asleep.

Lifestyle factors that can contribute to insomnia:

  • Caffeine intake: Consuming caffeine late in the day can interfere with sleep and lead to insomnia.
  • Irregular sleep schedule: Going to bed and waking up at different times each day can disrupt the body's natural sleep-wake cycle and make it hard to fall asleep or stay asleep.
  • Use of electronic devices: The blue light emitted by electronic devices can interfere with the body's natural production of melatonin, making it harder to fall asleep.
  • Alcohol and drug use: While alcohol and some drugs can initially induce sleep, they can also cause frequent waking during the night and disrupt sleep quality.

Psychological factors that can lead to insomnia:

  • Anxiety: Worrying or feeling anxious can make it difficult to fall asleep or stay asleep.
  • Depression: Depression can cause changes in sleep patterns, leading to insomnia or oversleeping.
  • Stress: High levels of stress can cause racing thoughts and make it hard to relax and fall asleep.

It is worth noting that women are more likely to experience insomnia causes than men due to hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and menopause.

Effects of Insomnia

Insomnia can have a significant impact on a person's physical, cognitive, and emotional health. Some of the most common insomnia side effects include:

Physical effects of insomnia 

  • Fatigue: Insomnia can cause persistent fatigue, making it difficult to focus and perform daily tasks.
  • Weakened immune system: Lack of sleep can weaken the immune system, making a person more susceptible to illness.
  • Increased risk of accidents: Sleep deprivation can impair coordination and reaction time, increasing the risk of accidents.

Cognitive effects of insomnia: 

  • Difficulty concentrating: Insomnia can make it hard to concentrate, affecting performance at work or school.
  • Memory problems: Sleep plays a crucial role in consolidating memories, so insomnia can lead to forgetfulness and difficulty learning new information.
  • Poor decision-making: Lack of sleep can impair judgment and decision-making abilities, leading to poor choices.

Emotional effects of insomnia:

  • Irritability: Sleep deprivation can make a person more irritable and short-tempered, affecting personal relationships.
  • Mood swings: Insomnia can cause emotional instability and mood swings, leading to feelings of sadness, anxiety, or anger.
  • Decreased quality of life: Chronic insomnia can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life, leading to decreased enjoyment of activities and reduced social engagement.

Diagnosis of Insomnia 

To diagnose insomnia, a doctor will typically perform a physical examination and ask questions about sleep habits and medical history. They may also recommend a sleep study or assessment to monitor sleep patterns and identify any underlying sleep disorders.

The criteria for diagnosing insomnia include:

  • Difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep
  • Waking up too early and being unable to fall back asleep
  • Daytime fatigue or sleepiness
  • Impaired performance at work or school
  • Mood disturbances
  • Sleep disturbances occurring at least three nights a week for three months or more

Sleep studies and assessments that can be used to diagnose insomnia include:

  • Polysomnography: A test that measures brain waves, breathing, heart rate, and eye movements during sleep.
  • Actigraphy: A wristwatch-like device that measures movement and activity levels to monitor sleep patterns.
  • Sleep diary: A record of sleep patterns and habits over a set period. After diagnosis, it is essential to get the best treatment for insomnia.

Treatment of Insomnia

There are several insomnia treatment options available, including lifestyle changes, medications, and alternative therapies.

Lifestyle changes that can help alleviate insomnia include:

  • Establishing a regular sleep schedule: Going to bed and waking up at the same time every day can help regulate the body's sleep-wake cycle.
  • Avoiding caffeine and alcohol: Limiting or avoiding caffeine and alcohol can improve sleep quality.
  • Creating a relaxing sleep environment: Keeping the bedroom cool, dark, and quiet can promote relaxation and better sleep.
  • Practicing relaxation techniques: Techniques such as deep breathing, meditation, and progressive muscle relaxation can help calm the mind and promote sleep.

Medications commonly prescribed for insomnia include:

  • Sedatives: Medications such as benzodiazepines and non-benzodiazepine hypnotics can help induce sleep and improve sleep quality.
  • Melatonin: A hormone that regulates sleep-wake cycles, melatonin supplements can help promote sleep.
  • Antidepressants: Some antidepressants can also help regulate sleep patterns and improve insomnia.

Alternative therapies for insomnia include:

  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy: A type of talk therapy that helps identify and change negative thoughts and behaviors that can contribute to insomnia.
  • Acupuncture: A traditional Chinese therapy that involves inserting needles into specific points on the body to promote relaxation and improve sleep.
  • Herbal supplements: Some herbs, such as valerian root and chamomile, are believed to have sedative effects and can help promote sleep. The best treatment for insomnia is the Sleep Tight supplement by Nuvomed. These sleeping pills work subtly to calm and relax your mind while also rejuvenating your brain cells.


Insomnia is a common sleep disorder that can have a significant impact on a person's health and well-being. It can be caused by a range of factors, including medical conditions, lifestyle choices, and psychological factors. The effects of insomnia can be physical, cognitive, and emotional, and can significantly decrease a person's quality of life.

Fortunately, there are several insomnia treatment methods available, including lifestyle changes, medications, and alternative therapies. It is essential to seek the best treatment for insomnia, as chronic insomnia can lead to a range of health problems and increase the risk of accidents and injuries. By understanding the causes of insomnia and seeking appropriate treatment, individuals can improve their sleep quality and overall well-being.